Engine oil consists of additives added base oil for its enhancement, additives like viscosity index improvers, anti-wear additives, dispersants, and detergents.
It is mainly used to clean the engine from varnish and sludge, and reduce the wear on moving parts ( Gears , piston, etc) and reduce the friction between them as much as possible.
Engine oil has many other functions out of which, cooling the engine by carrying away the heat from moving parts is one of them. It prevents parts from rust, corrosion, and acid degradation.
Gars Lubricants in the automotive sector is identical to innovation and technology-driven production of Lubricants all over widely.
An oil change is required when your vehicle shows any negative symptoms like not sufficient engine oil level, effect on mileage, smoking, engine knocking noise, oil is smelt while driving, dirty or dark oil is seen.
It provides lubrication to the engine parts and prevents friction, provides less wear and tear between engine parts, less heat, etc.
Normally or for conventional or mineral engine/ motor oils , it is recommended to change your engine oil for every 3000 miles or 5000 kilometers (Approximate price - INR Rs. 300 - Rs. 800 per litre).
Modern engine oils need a change after 5000 miles or 8000 kilometers to 7000 miles or 11000 kilometers (Approximate price - INR Rs. 800 - Rs. 1100 per liter).
The Full synthetic motor oils/engine oils need to change after every 15000 miles or 24000 kilometers (Approximate price - INR Rs. 1500 - Rs. 4000 per liter).
For each type, the more frequently you change it, the more benefit it will give you, and the long life for your engine will be ensured. It will prevent the wear and tear of your engine if you always have the right level and quality of the oil.
Oil changes are not much expensive and are highly recommended to check and do that frequently for better lubrication and smooth experience.
This range becomes highly low if your driving conditions vary according to long route rides, dusty and dirty environments, etc.
American John Ellis in 1866 on 6th September is given the title to realize the lubricating property of the crude oil and is known to develop the first lube oil.
He successfully discovered an oil capable of lubricating at high temperatures effectively, with an oil manufactured out of crude oil.
Basic Information to start learning with:
Engine oil is composed of base oil and additives and is a mixture of these substances in different ways and proportions.
According to the application and to meet the legislation standards like API for different categories of oil, the oil is blended and formed.
There can be three recommended choices for the base oil, namely mineral/organic base oil, Semi-Synthetic base oil, or Full-Synthetic base oil.
Semi-Synthetic and Full-Synthetic base oils are more refined oils and are required where a longer operating period and high difference in temperatures are experienced, such as those vehicles using petrol engines.
Mainly, Mineral/Organic oils are used by diesel engines operating off-road.
The difference between making oil and meeting the legislation standards like API, a mixture of additives is the key to meet different API standards according to aim for the production of engine oil for a particular category.
To create an oil that significantly benefits the performance and enhances the physical and chemical properties through additives.
Approx. 25% of the formulation is made up of these additives, and mostly there is a mixture of ten to fifteen (10-15) different types of additives mixture is used in the formulation of engine oils.
Specific functions of additives:
Selection of additives is very crucial and an important thing to be suitable with other additives and base oil too.
They have specific functions such as:
To create a protecting film between parts and to increase the lubrication between moving parts, Anti-wear additives are used.
To protect the engine from chemical compound sulfur in the oil and to prevent corrosion and rust of metal parts, Rust inhibitors and Anti-Corrosion additives are used.
To keep all the internals of the engine clean, Detergent is used.
Oxidation of the oil contributes to corrosion, breaks the base oil, causes an increase in oil viscosity, formation of sediments and sludge takes place, to prevent his from happening, Anti-Oxidant Additives are added.
To clean and remove the impurities in suspension when the oil is removed or changed, dispersants play the role of removing undesired impurities.
and many others for different functions but do not, adding more and more additives can make things go even worse as it is most important for additives to suit each other and with the base oil.
It defines how the oil flows and how its flow is changed with the temperature change as when the oil gets hotter, it tends to flow more smoothly as it gets thinner. Viscosity improver is an additive that is very much important.
To cope up with the challenge for engine oil to flow effectively during cold start and while the running of an engine is patched up by Viscosity Improvers as it ensures the engine oil film is not too thin in hot working conditions (high temperatures), and the engine oil is not too thick in cold weathers for it to flow effectively during cold start as thick oil may not circulate properly between the parts.
To grade oil's viscosity, the Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) sets up the standards according to which an oil's viscosity standards are defined. The higher the viscosity will be, the thicker the engine oil will be and the more it resists flow.
Monograde and Multigrade engine oils are denoted by two (2) numbers joined by "W", the number before "W" indicates the engine oil viscosity in cold temperatures and the number after "W" indicates the engine oil viscosity in warm condition temperatures.
They were used a long time ago in vehicles but are useful currently specifically according to their need, like in transmissions or vehicles operating under a minimum temperature difference.
There are two types of Mono-Grade Engine Oils, one which can operate under low temperatures and another one that can operate under high temperatures.
Modern engines and machines use Multi-Grade Oils because they can work efficiently under the wide spectrum of the temperature range.
What type of engine oil to use for your vehicle is very essential when you change your oil or if it's the first time. The selection of a perfect engine oil gets more complicated day by day as the engines are getting more powerful and smaller in size periodically.
To maintain the fuel efficiency and better sustain the high pressure of engines, manufacturers ask to use fully synthetic oils. Full synthetic oil looks after your engine better and a good vehicle is always recommended to use this type of oil.
Conventional/Mineral oil is the least refined oil, synthetic is more refined than mineral and full-synthetic is the most refined engine oil.
To know which type/grade/specification of oil to use, it will be well mentioned in your vehicle owner's manual.
It is recommended to always use the oil matching the same specification as mentioned in the manual and to change the oil frequently to get optimized performance and for the engine to last long.
The differences between the oil can be easily understood once you re-read the Information about Engine Oil and Oil factors section above, after which you will be able to very well distinguish between oils and choose a perfect one for your vehicle.